Keynote speaker: Heidi Partti
A rapidly changing society and complex global problems also challenge us, as researchers in the field of music, to consider our own role in addressing issues related to inequality and the ecological crisis, for instance. What kind of world do we create through our research, and what kind of world could we create? In my speech, I discuss the possibilities of particularly critical (narrative) research in producing and advancing a more sustainable and equal world of tomorrow. I also consider the role of hope in creating alternative prospects for the future.
Heidi Partti is Professor of Music Education at University of the Arts Helsinki, Sibelius Academy. Her research interests are initiated by a need to better understand the surrounding culture of music making, learning, and teaching, so as to help the music education profession adapt and understand the rapid changes transpiring in today’s world. Her articles and book chapters on topics such as music-related learning communities, digital technology, collective creativity, and the development of intercultural music teacher education have been published in numerous peer-reviewed journals. In addition to her work as a researcher, Partti supervises the writing of master’s and doctoral theses and teaches courses in research skills and ethics.
Keynote speaker: Neil Heyde
Finding ‘real’ questions and ‘inventing’ responses? Dispatches from the artistic research front.
I don’t know whether it’s helpful to think of what I do as ‘artistic research’. When the great 20th-century Russian violinist Nathan Milstein was asked in an interview late in life what advice he would give to a young violinist, he quoted his teacher Leopold Auer: ‘Don’t think with your hands, but with your brain’ and went on to add, ‘someone who doesn’t know what invention means should stop violin playing’. There is a challenge embedded in this: what might Milstein have meant by invention, and how and why might it be important?
The last few decades have witnessed the ‘institutionalising’ of research in conservatoires. How can we ensure research is truly at home in its hosts? Are the research questions we are asking ‘real’ or ‘invented’?
This lecture will explore some of the models and strategies I have developed over the last three decades, which embrace communication (language and notation), instrumental choreography, relationships with instruments transcending their ‘tool function’, and relationships with recorded heritage. In so doing, the aim is to open a dialogue with SibA researchers, performers and composers.
Neil Heyde is Head of Postgraduate Programmes at the Royal Academy of Music and Professor of Music of the University of London. He is currently a Visiting Professor at the Sibelius Academy and the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. He has been cellist of the Kreutzer Quartet since the mid 1990s and has performed extensively as a soloist in Europe and the UK. He has made more than 40 commercial recordings of music ranging from the 17th to the 21st centuries, expanding the repertoire for both quartet and cello through exploratory collaborations with composers, and by championing music from outside the mainstream.
He has published on composer-performer collaboration and made DVD projects exploring aspects of instrumental choreography. Current projects include writing on performing relationships in Ravel, a critical edition of Debussy’s three sonatas for the Oeuvres completes, new cello music exploring high-partial harmonics, and collaboration on a major cycle of solo pieces by American composer Richard Beaudoin, exploring relationships with iconic recordings (by Argerich, Casals, Debussy, Gould, Monk and Teyte/Cortot).
Spotlight on project: Martin Galmiche
This doctoral study addresses the question of spatiality and spatial justice in music education as a public service. The question is approached through one case, AÏCO (Apprentissage Instrumental et Invention Collective, or Instrument Learning and Collective Invention), carried out in Lyon Conservatory (France) in collaboration with a public primary school to develop musical instrument tuition in an underprivileged area. Through this case, the study not only aims at analyzing AÏCO as a dynamical social innovation within the wider conservatory systems involving institutional, professional, spatial, urbanistic, societal, pedagogical and artistic aspects, but also aims at contributing more widely to the international research on the dynamics of social innovations and spatiality in the field of music education. The conceptual frame of the study combines theoretical approaches of spatiality such as Soja’s (1996) theory of Thirdspace, with dynamical approaches such as those developed to analyze the time evolution of complex systems. I will: construct a detailed system map of AÏCO, collect data (e.g. provided by workshops and teacher interviews), identify the positive feedback loops that allow the AÏCO system to be sustainable and use these results for constructing more general conclusions on institutional choices conditioning accessibility of music education. In particular, the study focuses on the role of cross-sectoral, professional and institutional collaborations. Online presentation from Lyon, France.
Martin Galmiche studied at CFMI (training center for musicians-in-schools) in Lyon, France. Previously he had a scientific career as a researcher in fluid mechanics at CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique). He completed his PhD thesis at CNRS in Toulouse in 1999 and did postdoctoral research at Cambridge University, University College London and CNRS in Grenoble. He is now a musicien intervenant and a pianist for dance courses at Lyon Conservatory. He also founded the AÏCO course, as well as CLUSTER, a pedagogical and artistic research group at Lyon Conservatory. He started doctoral studies in the MuTri doctoral school (Sibelius Academy, Helsinki) in 2020 on spatial (in)justice in music education.
Spotlight on project: Antti Snellman
Self-directedness has become a buzzword in the field of education in recent years – and for a good reason. Previous research has clearly shown that self-directedness enhances the growth, integrity, performance, and overall wellbeing of students (Deci & Ryan 2017). However, without sufficient theoretical knowledge of its foundations, the best intentions of teachers to promote self-directedness can produce a surprising and entirely opposite result: the learning and wellbeing of students, particularly those with a low ability for self-directed learning, becomes threatened (Lonka 2020). This disparity between students leads, in turn, to inequality in the classrooms, whether among the students of an individual teacher or inside the school system (Saarinen et al., 2020). In my presentation, I address this problem in the context of one-to-one instrumental tuition in Finnish music schools. The ability for self-directed learning depends on the individual student’s age, previous learning experiences, home conditions, gender, and neurocognitive skills. Teachers should therefore individualize and customize their practice correspondingly along the continuum of teacher-centered vs. student-centered approach (Toivola 2017). The strong autonomy of instrumental teachers in Finnish music schools, combined with one-to-one tuition, creates excellent conditions for such customization. However, teachers are often left professionally isolated in their classrooms and may therefore remain too reliant on familiar, sometimes one-sided thinking and practice. My dissertation aims to offer one solution to this dilemma of teacher autonomy when promoting self-directed learning. The aim in my research is to develop an educational in-service model that can assist instrumental teachers to promote self-directedness in one-to-one tuition. With input from two groups – instrumental teachers and expert scholars in the field – I will devise an in-service model that is based on combining research with tacit knowledge, critical reflection, and collaborative learning among teachers. The concrete result of the research will be a website that offers material for the deployment of the model in music schools. It is also anticipated that the research will produce new knowledge in the field of music education and other academic disciplines on how to apply the principles of self-directedness to promote a more equal classroom practice in music education.
Antti is a freelance musician, saxophone teacher, and a doctoral candidate at The University of the Arts (Helsinki, Finland). As a saxophonist, he has toured and recorded domestically and abroad with a variety of artists and groups in the field of popular music (e.g. Riki Sorsa, Leningrad Cowboys, Mamba, Ben Waters, Ron Wood). He has at the same time worked as a saxophone teacher with children and teenagers at the Pop & Jazz Conservatory (Helsinki, Finland) for almost three decades. Antti`s teaching is based on creating a democratic classroom environment where the needs, goals, and values of each student are both identified and respected.
In his doctoral studies in the department of music education (MuTri), Antti is interested in how to promote students` self-directedness and intrinsic motivation. His research aims to design an in-service model for instrumental teachers that would give them practical tools to critically re-examine and develop their pedagogical thinking and practice in collaboration with their colleagues. The possible participation in the SibA Research Days would be Antti`s first public academic presentation.
Conference paper: Lucy Abrams Husso:
This paper investigates how ‘uptown’ was established as a network in the 1960s-1970s in New York City, and how it was institutionalized by American orchestras through the second half of the twentieth century. The model, established in New York City in the 1960s, was of local networks of composers, operating closely with the academic centers of Columbia University and the Juilliard School, whose aesthetics and practices were institutionalized by professional performance institutions like Carnegie Hall, the New York Philharmonic and the Metropolitan Opera. The relationships established between ‘uptown’ composers with universities and performance institutions represents a unique American system of classical contemporary music performance, the effects of which are still felt on American contemporary music performance practices today.
Lucy Abrams-Husso is a doctoral candidate and freelance clarinetist based in Helsinki. Her research explores contemporary clarinet repertoire by Finnish and American composers and the differences in contemporary music practice in both places. Lucy holds Bachelors degrees with High Honors in Clarinet Performance and Anthropology from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, and Master of Music degrees in clarinet performance from the Eastman School of Music (Rochester, NY) and the Sibelius Academy.
Conference paper: Spiros Delegos
The current paper addresses the peculiarity of interwar rebetiko, with regard to makam modality, as an expression of modal heterotopia. I draw upon the theoretical background of historical ethnomusicology including musical analysis in order to reveal and explain the signs of Ottoman makam modality in the syncretic musical phenomena. Conducting a case study of Saba makam phraseology and melodic behaviour, I focus on the objectified material of certain representative recordings and on the musico-cultural routes of the related agents, interpreting them within the socio-cultural context. Rebetiko constitutes a musical genre falling into the category of Greek urban popular music, an umbrella-term which embraces a plethora of instrumental tunes and songs of mixed origin and rich in style and morphology. Despite the fact that commercial imperatives have largely determined the space-time boundaries of rebetiko in an indistinct way, it could be seen as a musico-cultural ontology around and during the interwar period within the cosmopolitan urban network where the Greek ethnic group was present to varying degrees due to the modernity project of the establishment of the nation-state institution (Athens, Piraeus, Istanbul, Smyrna, Salonika, New York, Chicago, etc.). Rebetiko sounds and voices resonate and meander around the ‘East’, ‘West’, ‘Balkans’, and ‘eastern Mediterranean’; in fact, these expressions of essentialised spaces ideologically ground several narrations of the origin and history of interwar rebetiko. The transcendence of these essentialisms leads to the emergence of the heterotopia in question.
Spiros Delegos, born in Patras, Greece, is a PhD student of the DocMus Doctoral School at the Sibelius Academy Uniarts Helsinki, holds a Master’s degree in “Ethnomusicology and Cultural Anthropology” from the University of Athens (UoA) and a bachelor degree in Mathematics from the University of Patras. He has studied ‘Traditional’ Greek Music and lavta at the Municipal Conservatory of Patras, Theory of ‘Western Classical’ Music at the Philharmonic Foundation Conservatory of Patras, ‘Eastern’ Music and ‘classical’ mandolin privately. As a musician, he has been appearing at musical venues, live concerts, festivals, has been responsible for numerous tributes and has composed music for theatre. He is the founder and head teacher of the “Urban Greek Popular Music Department" at the Philharmonic Foundation Conservatory of Patras and the musical director of the “Urban Greek Popular Music Orchestra”, a large ensemble with string, wind instruments, etc. He has given an array of musical workshops on makam modality and harmonization in rebetiko (Sibelius Academy, Philharmonic Foundation Conservatory of Patras). He has presented several papers at (ethno)musicology conferences in Greece and abroad, has recently submitted related articles for publication in international scientific journals, and is a member of ICTM, IMS, etc.
Spotlight on project: Ville Raasakka
Material Ecology in Musical Composition Materials and their life-cycles have become more and more prominent in ecological research and the public discussion on ecological issues. According to research led by Ron Milo and colleagues, in 2020 the total mass of human-made materials outweigh all living biomass on earth. My doctoral project is engaged in bringing materials and their ecology into classical music composition. In my practice, the sounds of materials are transcribed into musical notation. In the concert situation, these sounds are produced by instruments, but sometimes expanded with the actual materials on stage or the recordings from these materials. The materials I have chosen for this project are coal, oil and wood. The reason I have chosen these materials is their crucial role in the global carbon cycle and the disturbance of this cycle. In my works, I examine many of the human-induced phases coal, oil and wood go through in their life-cycles. Extraction (forestry, mining), energy use (heating, transport, industry), product use (packaging, chemicals, plastics) and their dispersion (as carbon compounds and microplastics). For these compositions, I’ve recorded and gathered sounds from coal power stations in Finland, coal mines in Pennsylvania, packaging materials in supermarkets, cosmetics with petrochemical by-products, forest logging and British historical steam engines. This doctoral project is in its nature emancipatory, since by bringing important questions for me into my artistic practice, I am allowing myself agency as a citizen and as an artist. The practical side of this research deals with the many formats of composition that can be used in this kind of practice. The technical side of my research is centered in field recordings, their analysis and transcription. The aesthetic side of my research is developed in the compositions and the written thesis which explores the compositional process.
Since 2016, I am pursuing an artistic doctoral degree in composition at the Sibelius Academy, University of the Arts Helsinki. My advisors are Veli-Matti Puumala (composition) and Lauri Suurpää (written thesis). I am on my fifth academic year and plan to graduate in 2022. The topic of my research is ’Material Ecology in Musical Composition’. Since many of the artistic methods used in this project are site- and situation-specific, I have done a significant amount of secondary studies at the Time and Space department of the Fine Arts Academy. The principal concepts in my artistic research are soundscape, sound object and sonic effect. These concepts are applied and reflected upon both in the compositional work and in the written thesis. The principal method of research is musical transcription and its applications in computer-assisted composition. The principal formats of musical composition explored in this doctoral project are concert composition, installation composition and performance composition.
Conference paper: Pauliina Valtasaari
There are specific psychosocial stressfactors that are universal in working life and predict stress-related disorders (Nieuwenhuijsen et al. 2010). Beside these general factors musicians have some special features that may increase the psychosocial load in their working life (Vervainioti & Alexopoulos 2015). There is wide range of research data about physical problems and different physical interventions carried out among musicians, but not so many interventions focusing on musicians’ psychosocial stressors. It is pivotal to understand there are special features in musicians’ working culture and traditions that dictate the procedures and occupational demands in orchestras and other music institutions. My aim is to create a modified supervision and coaching method that serves the specific needs of professional musicians and strengthens their occupational wellbeing through their career span. This research has been accomplished with musicians from five symphony orchestras in Finland. After gathering an interview data among 11 musicians from three different orchestras I am carrying out two career supervision interventions with two orchestras during the season 2020–2021. Each intervention included five supervision sessions with five to six musicians. Every session was filmed and after each of them the participants wrote a reflective feedback inquiry. I pursued to find different expressions and emotions both verbally and bodily that exemplify their specific needs, social positions, and personal growth during the process. I also scrutinized my own position, transferences and reactions as a supervisor by observing the video recordings and writing reflectively after each session. The supervising method I developed includes five key elements: self-compassion, hope, realistic optimism, wisdom and resilience. I will show in my preliminary results that orchestra musicians benefit from career supervision that is tailored for their needs, working culture, and schedules. It increases their personal and communal resources and empowers them to find constructive solutions for the psychosocial stressfactors in their working life. Supervision may be a preventive procedure against stress-related disorders among musicians.
Pauliina Valtasaari has her backround in classical violin, symphony orchestras and chamber music (1. violin player in Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra 2002–2016). Since her early career she has been interested in the psychosocial aspects of musicians’ work, and thereby started to do her doctoral studies (2017–) about supervising and mental coaching method for professional musicians (The University of the Arts Helsinki). Pauliina Valtasaari has also studied psychology and social psychology in Helsinki University (2016–2019), she has a degree in cognitive short therapies (2015–2017, Integrum Institute), and she is a professional career supervisor (2018–2020, Metanoia Instituutti). She works specially among professional musicians: supervising and coaching, lecturing, writing and consulting about musicians wellbeing and psychosocial resources. Pauliina has been a board member of Finnish Musicians’ Medicine Association since 2015 and started as a chairman of the board in November 2020. Since 2020 she has collaborated with Kungliga Musikhögskolan Stockholm in a project about music students’ perfomative skills and psychological wellbeing.
Conference paper: Lauri Kilpiö
The term motive has traditionally been understood as the shortest unit in music, and most commonly as the shortest melodic component in a musical work. The central aim of my doctoral project is to show that the concept of motive and motivity may be relevant also in a contemporary music context, where the melody or even pitch content may not have any role in perception at all. In my presentation, I shall cover the aforementioned topic in the light of a few examples from my own orchestral piece Sinfoninen kuva (Symphonic Tableau, 2017). In my view, the criteria for motivity in contemporary music context are basically not defined by the use of certain parameters or even by the nature of the sound unit itself, but rather by the context and manner, in which the sound unit appears in a piece. I am presenting the following conditions, on which a sound unit, in my perspective, can have a motivic function: (1) A sound unit has a recognizable and memorable shape. (2) A sound unit is limited in duration. (3) A sound unit appears more than once in a piece; i.e. it is repeated. (4) A sound unit appears in a piece as different variants, i.e. it is varied Sinfoninen kuva is a 16 minutes long work for symphonic orchestra. While involving definite pitches and pitch structures, the piece hardly has any melodic content at all. Accordingly, the objects of perception in the piece are essentially not melodic units, but rather sound units consisting of the overall texture or sound of the orchestra. In my presentation, I shall demonstrate, how one of these sound units, introduced for the first time in bars 1–2, receives a strongly motivic function in the music: this unit is recognizable, it is limited in duration, it is repeated and it is varied during the course of the piece. I shall also demonstrate, how the different variants and appearances of this sound-unit contribute to the overall dramaturgical process of the work, from the softly-sounding opening to the powerful culminations later and the quiet fading at the end.
Lauri Kilpiö (b. 1974) is taking his composer's artistic doctoral degree in DocMus, with "Motivity in contemporary music context" as his research topic. As a part of his studies, Kilpiö had a full-length composition concert in Helsinki in May 2019. Kilpiö’s music has been played e.g. by the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra, BBC Symphony Orchestra, Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra, Tapiola Sinfonietta, Avanti and several other Finnish orchestras. His works have also been performed e.g. at various contemporary music festivals in Finland and abroad. The collaboration with performing musicians, such as pianist Joonas Ahonen, pianist Paavali Jumppanen and guitarist Jyrki Myllärinen, has been very significant to him. Besides being a composer, Kilpiö is also professionally educated as a pianist. Since 2014 Kilpiö has been working as a lecturer in composition at the Sibelius Academy of the University of the Arts in Helsinki.
Conference paper: Adriano Adewale
This paper is part of my doctoral research: ‘The Art of Communication’ – Searching for the Essence of Music Making Through the Berimbau’. The Berimbau is a prehistoric musical bow which belongs to the chordophones. There is a wide variety of chordophones displaying different ways in which this family of instruments use the musical bow exploring different instrument making techniques, performing techniques and different ways in which it produces sound. Musical bows use single or multiple strings: plucked, struck or bowed; a variety of resonators including gourds of different sizes, materials and shapes; strings made out of different materials that affect the sound in profound ways; several approaches to sticks which produce distinct sounds. The Berimbau is a chordophone formed by one string, one gourd and the musical bow. Traditionally, the Brazilian Berimbau uses a stone or ‘Dobrão’ (a coin size like) for the modulation of the notes produced by the string and the caxixi, a shaker which is played at the same time as the musical bow, in connection with the ‘Dobrão’. Lastly, the research will also investigate the relationship of the body and the ways it works as an integral part of the components which contribute to produce the wide range of sounds played by the Berimbau. What are the origins of the materials and tools used to play Berimbau? Where does the gourd come from and what are the considerations when choosing what is the most appropriated gourd? What are the possibilities of the strings and what sounds they produce? What is the ‘dobrão’ made out of and what other materials could be used and what are the sonic differences? What is the relation between the size and the diameter of the musical bow’s wood and the sound produced by the Berimbau? Those are some of the questions this paper aims to answer, bringing to light the technology and the techniques used by a prehistoric musical instrument which has survived through to the present days.
Born in Sao Paulo – Brazil. For many years he was known as Adriano Pinto, a colonial name he received at birth. It was after his visit to Africa (Nigeria and Benin Republic) searching for his roots that he changed his name to Adriano Adewale Itauna. Respectively from the Yoruba-Nigeria and Tupi Guarani-Brazil. Adewale has a Masters degree from SOAS - School of Oriental and African Studies - London/Uk and he attended a Bachelors course at the University of São Paulo Estate - São Paulo/Brazil. In 2008 Adriano released his first solo album, the critically acclaimed Sementes (Segue records) produced by Gilad Atzmov. In 2012 he released The Vortex Sessions, a collaboration with the foremost Brazilian piano players Benjamin Taubkin. This was followed by Raizes (Caboclos records) in 2014, his second solo album with the ‘Adriano Adewale Group’, produced by Chris Kimsin (Rolling Stones, Jimmy Cliff). Adewale is also the mentor behind Catapluf’s Musical Journey, a concert which introduces young audiences to Jazz, commissioned by the EFG London Jazz Festival. Adriano’s distinctive sounds come from organic materials, connected to nature. They are made out of wood, clay, metal, skins and the philosophy behind it is the connection with the four classic elements: water, earth, air and fire. Playing percussion is about making music. The idea of percussion has changed dramatically with the great late percussionist Nana Vasconcelos, who is Adriano’s percussion master and inspiration. Adriano creates mesmerising atmospheres and soundscapes; he paints with sounds, telling stories through music. Over the years Adriano has worked as a curator and artistic director. He curated Festival Brasileiro, which involved theatre, dance, music and fine arts from Brazil, and challenged presiding conceptions of Brazilian culture. As part of the festival, he arranged for and conducted the Essex Youth Jazz Ensembles. Adriano was an artist in residence at the EFDSS - English Folk Dance and Song Society, where he developed Within the Waves, a project for massed voices and percussion performing sea songs and sea shanties from Brazil and England. As a composer, Adriano has been commissioned by Bath Music Festival; by British choreographer Kate Flatt on the dance piece ‘Undivided loves’ based on Shakespeare sonnets, performed by Phoenix dance company 2016 and worked with the Royal Opera House and Polka Theatre on a theatre production called Hatch. Currently, Adriano is part of the core team of teachers at the Global Music Department, Univerity of the Arts, Helsinki. He also is a doctoral student at the Folk Department, University of the Arts, Helsinki.
Lecture-recital: Riikka Talvitie
Last artistic project of my research, which will be performed at the end of the year 2021, is called Mimesis, metaphor, modeling ¬– a cycle for piano, live-electronics and video. My intuitive basic assumption is that modeling means composers’ mimesis today. I return to the roots of modeling to examine the relationship between music and mathematical models as well as physical phenomena. The piano cycle consists of 12 movements, each of which is a kind of study on mimesis. The piano cycle works as a method for reflecting on the following questions: Is mimesis still a usable concept to describe what a composer expresses while composing? What is the boundary between modeling and a composer’s expression? What is the relationship between modeling and a metaphor? To get closer to the research phenomena I open a work concept and allow performing and visual elements inside. The upcoming contemporary music recital is constructed like a performance art project. I compose a performance, or a performance script, along with piano music. Instead of hiding compositional way of thinking inside a score, I try to demonstrate it to the audience through different means of presentation. In this lecture-concert I focus on a topic: a script as a composing tool. By script I mean a written document, a paper, a plan which helps me and the rest of the working group to communicate which each other, organize dramaturgical elements and build a performance. In the script different types of information could be written, drawn or notated. It can have elements which are imaginary without any concrete comparison. With the aid of the script, I try to intertwine my research questions about mimesis, metaphor and modeling closer to the musical material. The project is a collaboration with pianist Mirka Viitala and sound designer Heidi Soidinsalo.
Riikka Talvitie has worked extensively in the field of music as a composer and pedagogue. More recently, her interest has shifted to the areas of community and performing arts, particularly the question of how composing process and authorship could be shared. She is currently completing her artistic doctorate at the DocMus doctoral school at the University of the Arts Helsinki. In her doctoral degree, there are five artistic projects included. A radio-opera The Queen of the cold land was awarded in Prix Italy in 2018. Her experimental video work Omakuva – Self portrait, which was premiered in Tampere Biennale 2018, has been exhibited in several galleries during last year. A Multimedia work Heinä – Grass, a collaboration with dramaturg Pipsa Lonka, was premiered in the Silence festival in 2018. Talvitie has also implemented several collaborative projects focusing on ecological issues, like Shrieking Nature for es-clarinet and multimedia and If all the world were paper… for baroque ensemble Cornucopia. She is currently preparing a performance in collaboration with composer Lauri Supponen and researcher Juha Torvinen that will be performed in Our festival next summer 2021. The theme of the work is a Baltic sea. Talvitie has also been cordinationg the Equity in Composing -project, which purpose is to achieve a positive impact in the role divisions, attitudes, and beliefs related to composing within the field of classical music. The research-based developmental project focuses on teaching practices and education in composing. The pilot project will end at the end of 2020.
Lecture-recital: Anne Elisabeth Piirainen
The musical legacy of the Jewish-Russian musical family Krein has remained vastly unknown. The three composers Alexander, Grigory and Yulian Krein have created unique works within the classical repertoire, combining stylistic elements of Russian Post-Romanticism, French Impressionism and Jewish traditional music. Each of them has found an individual voice, but there are also congruencies in the styles of all three composers. Under the dictatorship of Stalin, gradually all religious activities were banned, including artistic activities with Jewish content. In the music of the Krein family, striking stylistic changes can be traced under repression. All three composers used Jewish themes in their early works, but during Stalinism the Jewish traditional elements vanished from their compositions. In the Soviet Union after Stalin, compositions with Jewish themes remained widely disregarded. As a consequence, these excellent and valuable works are neglected until present day and awaiting their highly necessary rediscovery. This lecture-recital will focus on the clarinet music of Yulian Krein (1913–1996). Yulian was early recognized as child prodigy. During the extended stays abroad with his father Grigory, Yulian studied piano and composition at the Vienna Conservatory in 1926-27 and at the Paris Conservatory 1928-34 with Paul Dukas, who praised the young Yulian as an exceptional talent. After his return to the Soviet Union in1934, Yulian never found similar appreciation as he had in Paris. Most remarkable is that Yulian composed early works using Jewish themes, but in the works composed after his return to the Soviet Union, there are no hints of Jewish music traceable any longer. Instead, Yulian ́s music bears strong references to French Impressionism and Neoclassicism, resulting in highly charming clarinet compositions as the Sonata and Trio-Sonatina; as well as in his marvelous compositions for piano and vocal works. The clarinet works are previously unrecorded, and no performance tradition has been established for this repertoire yet. The lecture-recital delves into the curious amalgam of musical influences in Yulian Krein´s clarinet music, which has not yet been examined scholarly at all. Program: Yulian Krein: Clarinet Sonata (1961) Anne Elisabeth Piirainen, clarinet and lecture Dr Kirill Kozlovski, piano
Finnish-German clarinetist Anne Elisabeth Piirainen is an active soloist, chamber musician and teacher. Currently she is finishing her artistic doctoral research project at DocMus, Sibelius Academy, on the topic: “Clarinet Music from Russia and the Soviet Union 1917-1991: Discovering an Unexplored Side of the Clarinet Repertoire.” Anne is going to continue with an artistic postdoc research project on clarinet compositions with Jewish themes by Alexander, Grigory and Yulian Krein, funded by the Finnish Cultural Foundation. Anne's vast musical education includes the postgraduate Concert Soloist degree from the Royal Antwerp Conservatory, Belgium, and Master of Music degrees from the Rotterdam Conservatory and Moscow State Tchaikovsky Conservatory. Being a prizewinner of the prestigious 1st Carl-Nielsen-Competition in Odense, Denmark (1997, 4th), Anne has appeared as soloist with orchestras in Germany, Russia, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Finland.
Spotlight on project: Paola Livorsi
Sounding Bodies is the fourth project of my artistic research “Human voice and instrumental sound: a comparative study in timbral content”. The performance took place in Helsinki, at the Space for Free Arts, on 14.11.2020. The purpose of the performance was to explore the space in an embodied way, though voice and sound, creating a spatial path unfolding along with an audiovisual path. In this perspective the space itself, with its peculiar acoustics and presence, became an instrument and a source of inspiration. A deep cave in the rock, a former bomb shelter from the Cold War, the space consists in two long tunnels, connected through a narrow corridor. The shelter is a historical place where at the same time “we withdraw ourselves from the global communicative temporality “, and a place “to settle down or celebrate a feast during the plague” (Suoja/Shelter 2019). Sounding Bodies is a collaborative work, in first place with the live cinema artist Marek Pluciennik – our collaboration started in 2016 with Imaginary Spaces (resumed on 10.10.2020 in Cable Factory). In Marek’s aesthetics the materiality of film has a central place – the materiality of sound is also important in my work, being at the core of my work with the electronics. In this work four analogue projectors are used as mechanical sounding bodies, producing sounds through the optical output – treated with analogue machines. The film itself was manipulated live in a duo with the double-bass. A short film involving two dancers and their voices, and double-bass, was made at the beginning of the project – and shown during the performance. The piece is an on-site research about the relations of spoken-voice and mother-tongue and their multiple relations with the instrument, and exploring a space with bodies and sounds – through texts by Christoph Solstreif-Pirker and Lalla Romano. It is a site-specific work, developed in close collaboration with the string instruments ensemble Jousitus, the dancers Giorgio Convertito and Vera Lapitskaya, Marek Pluciennik, and Alejandro Olarte. For the first time I was also one of the performers. The presentation includes a 5 minutes video.
Composer/researcher. Works and lives in Helsinki since 2001. Graduated in History of Music at the University of Turin (1994) and in Composition at the Conservatory "A.Vivaldi", Alessandria, Italy (1996). Carrying out the artistic research “Human voice and instrumental voice: a comparative study in timbral content” at the Centre of Music and Technology Sibelius Academy (2015-). Presented her work at international seminars, University of Gothenburg, Music Technology (2018), Siba Research Days (2018), Sibelius Academy and Royal Academy of Music (Helsinki 2018), Nordic Symposium on Artistic Research (Kallio Kuninkala 2019). And at the international conferences Doctors in Performance (Vilnius 2018) and Performance Studies international #25, University of Calgary (2019). She took also part at the international workshops Stage AudioSculpt Avancé IRCAM (Paris 2017), and Nord+Mix Creative Worshop in Spatial Sound Sphere (Vilnius 2018). She realized the doctoral concerts Imaginary Spaces (2016/2020), Voices and Spaces (2017), Voice and Cello (2019), Sounding Bodies (2020).
Spotlight on project: Jouni Hirvelä
My artistic doctoral project focuses on the relationship between (the moving) body and sound, and how a composer can use movement in concert music. According to the paradigm of embodied music cognition, the reception of sound and music is strongly determined by corporeally mediated interactions with music. That is, our understanding of music is strongly influenced by bodily schemas and movements. However, in a conventional composition the underlying embodied nature of music is so natural that it remains hidden. Then how could the work of a composer reflect this? And how to make the performing body an integral part of the composition? In this occasion I will present parts of my composition ‘Gesti’ for violin and video projection. The piece is commissioned by and dedicated to Maria Puusaari. The piece focuses on a group of violin-related gestures. In the video I address the violin-related gestures by associating them to movements of certain hand-tools, such as hammer, saw and hand drill, as well as a feather and a bow. I will explain how I used the gestures in the score and give examples of the video part. I will also show sections of a concert performance by Maria Puusaari. I will discuss the compositional treatment of the materials as ordering of abstract patterns and forms, and how this view of composing was challenged in the end of this piece.
Jouni Hirvelä is a doctoral student of composition at Sibelius Academy since 2018. His research interests are centered around embodiment, movement and materiality of sound. He is focusing especially on different means how human body can be reflected in composition. In his artistic output he works with friction of materials, with spatiality and with combinations of visual stimulus and music.
Conference paper: Maria Puusaari
Due to the versatile expressive and technical demands, many contemporary music works may be extremely difficult to play. In terms of achieving a successful performance of contemporary music, how to lead is a critical question. Leading in the performance of a contemporary music work can be difficult, uncomfortable or impossible even for a professional musician. In my practice–based artistic research I approach leading as one playing technique among others that can help the interpretation of contemporary music. Leading means directing or conducting fellow musicians in a chamber music work with physical indications while playing an instrument. Leading gestures are used to guide, cue and synchronize ensemble playing. Leading is a multimodal and crossmodal embodied tool for interaction and communication of various musical features such as pulse, beat patterns, beginnings, endings, tempi and time change, agogics, articulation, dynamics, musical gestures and phrases. Leading can be used as a method for self–conducting and musical interaction in solo repertoire. In my presentation I will explain leading with different examples of chamber and solo music. How to lead contemporary music? When leading, what kind of musical features can be expressed, and how? I research and verbalize my tacit knowledge and observations as a violinist and a leader and describe the process of leading and learning to lead from the rehearsals to the concert.
Violinist Maria Puusaari is a doctoral student at the DocMus Doctoral School. In her concert series she performs solo and chamber music from the second half of the 20th century until today. The topic of her artistic research is 'leading' in the performance–practice of contemporary music. Puusaari is a member of the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Uusinta Ensemble and the artistic director of the Uuden Musiikin Lokakuu contemporary music festival in Oulu.
Spotlight on project: Helga Karen
My artistic research project—and particularly its concert component—sheds light on the pianist’s role in contemporary music. Over the past 70 years, it has become increasingly clear that being able to simply play on the keyboard is no longer enough to satisfy the demands and ambitions of contemporary music and arts. In my concerts, I explore the tools that the pianist needs to learn and possess to be able to perform contemporary music. This exploration is focused on the work of three composers: Karlheinz Stockhausen, Pierre Boulez and Morton Feldman. Representing two different schools and taking pianism to different edges of possibility, these three composers took their inspiration, passion and compositional techniques from the same composer: Anton Webern, the representative of the Second Viennese School who dared to challenge the canon and take the new twelve-tone technique to a new level, organizing not only pitch but other musical aspects as well, thus inspiring the creation of serialism. In my presentation, I would like to briefly present the themes of my artistic research project and put Anton Webern in the spotlight, presenting two movements from his Piano Variations for piano op.27 and elaborating on the specific aspects of the piece that inspired Stockhausen, Boulez and Feldman. We will discover what Webern himself thought about the Piano Variations and explore how a short piano piece can inspire a whole new musical movement. Why Webern, not Schoenberg? How can the same composer inspire future serialists and a future pioneer of indeterminate music—two opposing artistic approaches? To what point did these three composers arrive? Who stayed true to their inspiration and who changed the most? These questions will be answered and discussed in the spotlight on my artistic research project.
Helga Karen (1991) is a Finnish pianist specialized in the performance of classical contemporary music. She has performed as a soloist and chamber musician in various contemporary music festivals, such as Lucerne Festival, SoundScape, Musica Nova, ISA2015, the Stockhausen Courses and Concerts, Impuls Academy and the International Summer Course for New Music Darmstadt. Helga has given world premiere performances of works for piano solo and chamber music; she has also performed as a member of such orchestras and ensembles as the Basel Symphony Orchestra, Basel Sinfonietta and Lucerne Festival Academy. In 2018–2019, Helga was the project manager of the new school music program for Maestro Daniel Barenboim at the Daniel Barenboim Stiftung in Berlin in collaboration with the Berlin Cosmopolitan School. Helga has won several prizes at various competitions, as a soloist and with chamber music groups, including 1st prizes in the Giovani Musicisti music competition, Stockhausen Concert and Courses, Karlsruhe Contemporary Music Competition and Orpheus Chamber Music Competition. Helga received her diploma in piano pedagogy from Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, completed her pedagogical studies at the Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien and received her Master’s degree in Specialized Performance in Contemporary Music from Basel Music Academy in 2016. Helga's artistic research project focuses on the development of the pianist's role in contemporary music, with a focus on the piano pieces of Karlheinz Stockhausen.
Web-poster: Uljas Pulkkis
Orchestration timbre is an attribute hard to measure, because of a lack of the generalized measurement unit. Orchestral handbooks often refer to orchestration timbre with an undefined attribute “sound color”. The “sound color” labels are assigned mostly for clear cases, for example label “dark” for low string- or brass chord and label “bright” for high flute- or string harmonic chord. However, if the orchestration chord has both, dark and bright attributes, it is not labelled as “dark-bright”. The complex orchestration chords that could be thought to consist of several sound color labels are often left out from the orchestration handbook examples. Thus, a labelable orchestration chord must have a homogenous timbre. For determining the homogeneity of the orchestration chord, the timbre must be assigned with a comparable value, other than ambiguous “dark” or “bright” -type of attribute. One candidate for the timbre value is a MFCC (Mel Filter Cepstral Coefficient) -vector. The MFCC -vector is a compact representation of the short-term power spectrum, and commonly used as feature in speech recognition systems. MFCC -vector for orchestration chord can be calculated by assigning pre-recorded instrument samples to the orchestration chord notes and calculating the MFCC -vector from the samples. The result is a group of vectors, 12 values each, representing the timbre attribute of each participating orchestration instrument. The coefficient of variation (CV) is a method used mainly in statistic, which gives a value of relative standard deviation of the data. The CV is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Because of the definition of the CV, the low mean of the data gives high CV values. The homogeneity of the orchestration chord can thus be calculated by applying the CV method to the group of MFCC vectors of the orchestration chord and checking that the mean value is not near zero. The lower CV value, or the low mean value means higher homogeneity. The MFCC -vector and CV can thus be used to give comparable values both to orchestral timbre and timbre homogeneity.
Uljas Pulkkis is a Finnish contemporary composer. Pulkkis specialty is combining mathematics and computer science in orchestration practice. His latest large scale compositions include an opera “I väntan på en jordbävning” (2019), orchestral work “Lagrangian point” (2018) and one hour long symphony “Maamme” (2018). In addition Pulkkis’s composition catalogue has over 40 orchestral works and 5 operas, and he’s works has received several international prices, such as Gustav Mahler, Paris Rostrum and Queen Elizabeth –prizes in the turn of the century. Currently Pulkkis is finishing his doctoral project at the Uniarts Helsinki, and composing two operas “All the truths we cannot see” and “Raatteen tie”, which are scheduled to be performed after the pandemic.
Web-poster: Pia Siirala
My research, “Kuulokulmia” (“Aspects of Hearing”) concentrates on the music of the indigenous people of northeastern Siberia. It has made me question my perception of music, as I have been brought up in the western tradition of classical music. For us music is something that we produce, whereas in the culture of the indigenous peoples of the North, music is part of a person’s identity, a fundamental part of being human. Since 2009 I have made field trips to Chukotka, where the ancient musical tradition is still alive. Subsequently, I have returned to Chukotka in 2016,2017 and 2019. The Personal Song is a song that is given to every child at birth. Later, when people are adults, they create their own song, which is as natural as speaking. Singing is not a repetition of something that one has already heard, but as spontaneous as a conversation. It is also common to sing ancestral songs of the family. Through a personal song a person becomes present, even if he has died. Unfortunately, this aural tradition is vanishing, together with the traditional reindeer herding lifestyle. Through composing I explore how music is heard and shaped. It raises questions such as, what is the root of a musical thought, how does music flow in our subconscious mind or what is the relationship between hearing and synchronisation. My observations will be demonstrated in five doctoral concerts. The thesis will concentrate on the analysis of music of the North East Siberian indigenous peoples. Based on the material I have collected on my field trips; I especially examine the changes in the Personal song in the areas where nomadic reindeer herding continues to exist. From another viewpoint, I contemplate on how Chukchi traditional singing influences my musicianship, which has its roots in another cultural background.
Pia Siirala studied at the Sibelius Academy, the Budapest Liszt Academy and at the Moscow Tchaikovsky Conservatory. She is concert master of Ensemble XXI, founded by conductor Lygia O’Riordan, with whom she has performed throughout Russia, Europe, Australasia and the Americas. Siirala has also performed as a chamber musician, as a soloist and given solo recitals. Since the autumn of 2016, Siirala has been carrying out her doctoral studies at the Sibelius Academy on the music of the indigenous people of the North East Siberia, Sakhalin, Kamchatka and Chukotka, where the ancient musical tradition of the indigenous people is still a living tradition. Her main research subject is the ancient music of the Chukchi people. Based on the indigenous music she has created several compositions.